Articulation refers to an individuals ability to produce sounds in words.

    Sounds are developmental and are acquired at different ages. Some children develop all their sounds by the time they are 2-3years of age, others do not for various reasons. Developmental norms for the acquisition of sounds are:  


                                            Age 3: /m/, /b/, /p/, /w/

                                            Age 4: /k/, /g/, /f/ 

                                            Kindergarten: /l/

                                            First grade:  /sh/, /ch/

                                           Second grade: /th/, /r/, /s/


    Oral Motor Skills


    Acquiring and stabilizing the proper placement for the production of sounds is an essential part of articulation therapy.  Strengthening the muscles in the oral area is also often necessary to improve articulation and overall speech intelligibility.  Oral motor exercises will strengthen musculature and improve the sequencing of oral motor movements.